ISSN: 2376-127X



当社グループは 3,000 以上の世界的なカンファレンスシリーズ 米国、ヨーロッパ、世界中で毎年イベントが開催されます。 1,000 のより科学的な学会からの支援を受けたアジア および 700 以上の オープン アクセスを発行ジャーナルには 50,000 人以上の著名人が掲載されており、科学者が編集委員として名高い

700 ジャーナル 15,000,000 人の読者 各ジャーナルは 25,000 人以上の読者を獲得

  • 索引コペルニクス
  • Google スカラー
  • アカデミックキー
  • レフシーク
  • ハムダード大学
  • エブスコ アリゾナ州
  • OCLC-WorldCat
  • パブロン
  • ジュネーブ医学教育研究財団
  • ユーロパブ


hCG, Hyperglycosylated hCG, Pituitary hCG, Cancer hCG and Fetal hCG

Laurence Cole

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a one-of-a-kind biochemical. The amino acid sequence of the α- and ß-subunits codes for six semi-independent molecules, binding two separate receptors, the lutropin (LH)/hCG hormone and the transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß) autocrine receptor. The six semi-independent molecules each vary by carbohydrate structure, merism and by the presence of mutations, and are produced by six different cells, or have six separate functions. This makes hCG the only molecule of its kind. Here we for the first time examine the structures, production and occurrence of the hCG six semi-independent molecules. The hormone hCG (hCG-1) structurally has 4 biantennary N-linked and 4 type one O-linked sugar side chains. It is made by fused placental syncytiotrophoblast cells and acts on an LH/hCG receptor, promoting hemochorial placentation during pregnancy, suppressing macrophage phagocytosis of fetal and placental tissues, and suppressing contractions during pregnancy. The molecule hyperglycosylated hCG (hCG-2) structurally has 4 biantennary N-linked and four type two O-linked sugar side chains. It is made by root cytotrophoblast cells but acts as an antagonist on an autocrine TGFß receptor on placental cells. It controls implantation and placental growth during pregnancy. The molecule previously called pituitary hCG (hCG-3) structurally is a variant of hCG-1 with sulfated N- and O-linked oligosaccharides. This is produced by pituitary gonadotrope cells and act on an LH/hCG receptor parallel to LH, promoting steroidogenesis, ovulation, oocyte growth and luteogenesis. hCG-4 is a variant of hCG with triantennary N-linked oligosaccharides and type two O-linked oligosaccharides. hCG-4 dimer is produced by trophoblastic cancers and hCG-4 free ß-subunit is produced by all other cancers. It is an autocrine that antagonizes a TGFß receptor promoting cancer cell growth and invasion. hCG-5 free ß-subunit is a variant of hCG-1 that is highly mutated. It is produced by the fetal liver and kidney during pregnancy, and promotes growth and development of fetal organs.